Asylum - 1920 Insane Aslyum would be a start for doors and internal sounds. You can add a little computer ambiance and flickering neon lights to make it more modern. Use Office 2015 to add some computer typing, mouse clicking, trackpad clicking, filing cabinets, etc. Flickering neon lights can be found in Government Facility.
Police Precinct - Office 2015 for the various office work that needs to be done (computer typing, coughing and shuffling, etc), Government Facility has an “office phone” sound, good for any precinct. Government Facility also has elements called: “people talking” (which sounds like people talking in a large room, might be good for the bullpen), along with “moving soldiers” (perhaps pairs of cops hustling to duty) and “footsteps on a hard floor” (people moving purposefully). For a police scanner, use Star Island’s “security personnel” element, probably turned down low as the actual announcements don’t all fit with a regular modern city. The “ambiguous announcements” element might work for PA announcements.
Prison - The Good Friends of Hilton Adams (in the Masks of Nyarlathotep set) have a mood called “a meeting at Sing-Sing” which is exactly what you want. You could modernize it slightly with the “security personnel” and “ambiguous announcements” elements suggested above.
Science Lab - Alien Laboratory should work here. Add in the computer noises from Office 2015 to make it more modern and less futuristic if needed.
City Streets - City Street 2015 is your basic city ambiance, Car Chase 2017 also has good city moods and also, of course, a car chase, and then you can add elements in from Street Battle for when things get hot! (Street Battle has optional superpower elements.)
Mad Scientist Lab - You can use Alien Laboratory, or add in stuff from Mad Scientist’s Lab for more weirdness and insane laughter.
Nearby Island - Of the friendly sort? Or the Alcatraz sort? Beach Cove 2015 is good for your typical waves on the sand sort of place. Star Island is more of the Alcatraz sort.
Bay/Harbor - Beach Cove 2015 works again for a bay. If you have a working harbor, I’d add in lots of the elements from Spacedock (subtracting the “take-offs and landings” and “com voice” for the “ambiguous announcements” from Star Island instead.
Night Club - You could use a few different ones or combine them depending on your style. Cyberpunk Disco, Cyberpunk - Forlorn Hope (which has four different bar/club moods), and House Party 2015. You could substitute in different music from Music - Chilled or Music - Smooth Jazz for a different sort of club, if you need to change the mood.
I hope that helps! Let me know if you need any more suggestions!